Posts Tagged ‘theming’

Interview with Dr. Chuck Hughes – Bringing in Clients with Attention Grabbing Theming

November 15th, 2018

Dr. Chuck Hughes is a highly successful pediatric dentist in Jackson, Tennessee and a valued customer of IDS. We sat down with Dr. Hughes to ask him about his experience working with IDS and the impact it has had on his practice. Now an enthusiastic office ‘themer’, he was happy to oblige.

IDS: Dr. Hughes, what made you contact IDS in the first place?

Dr. Chuck Hughes: When I first saw them in PDT magazine and then at the AAPD conference, I thought, wow, this company is really creative and I bet if I put one of their giant characters on my roof, it would stop traffic. Of course it would be great advertising.

Then, taking it one step further, I thought about why I became a pediatric dentist. I love working with kids and I know how important it is for them to learn how to take care of their teeth. What if I could do more to make their office visit fun, engaging and educational? Everyone at our office already does so much to put kids at ease but what if we could make the office seem like a fun place for kids, super welcoming and just for them… how great would that be?


IDS: Were you doing anything to market your practice before you found IDS?

Dr. Chuck Hughes: At the time I was doing everything I could think of! I was doing newspaper ads, TV commercials and radio spots. It was expensive but what I believed needed to be done. I was spending about $6000 a month on what would help grow my practice.


IDS: How was your experience working with IDS?

Dr. Chuck Hughes: Fantastic, from beginning to end. When I first called and spoke to Dave (IDS President) he was so excited about the potential of my office that I couldn’t help but get excited too. I could immediately tell from our first conversation that he knew dental offices and all the challenges that we have setting up and running our practices. I knew I was talking to an expert.

I could tell from their website that everything was very high quality, so I was a little worried about costs. Once I started working with IDS, they were so professional and detailed that I realized I was in good hands. How can you not be impressed with their design ideas and the quality of their products?

And the results! They did everything that they said they would and more. The IDS installers that came down to my office did a great job and the installation of everything went very easy and on time. I was blown away by what they accomplished.


IDS: Did you get the results you were looking for and how did you know?

Dr. Chuck Hughes: I knew as soon as we opened that we were getting a lot of new patients, so I asked my staff to keep track by asking each new patient or their parents what brought them in. At the time, like I said, I was spending a significant amount each month on promotional ads in the newspaper, on TV and radio and a bunch of other things. And all those things took a lot of time to manage.

I was thinking that I would have been happy if my new investment in IDS had been responsible for 50% of the new patients tracked. You could have knocked me over with a feather when the results came in after six months… a full 94% of people surveyed cited the exterior theming!! I was so happy to hear this. I knew I was making the right decision but this survey proved it.


IDS: Were there any other benefits?

Dr. Chuck Hughes: Multiple benefits! Patient retention, no question. My dental team is the best and we have always worked very hard on patient retention. However, if children cannot wait to come back because of how cool our office is, that’s just a bonus.

We always see parents and teens taking pictures with their phones in the office. You can’t buy that kind of advertising when they send out those pictures to their friends and family and maybe even post them on their Facebook page. That’s a true benefit.

Another benefit is for my staff. They love it when a child walks in and their jaw drops at what they see, or when a mom compliments the office. It makes them proud because it’s their office too.

I am a huge advocate for proper dental education for my patients. IDS really helped me by creating elements in the theming that I use to educate all my patients. It is done in a fun and playful way so the kids are much more likely to remember what we’ve taught them.

And a final reason and this is really important, it also makes my job easier as well as our other dentists, hygienists, and assistants. If children are more relaxed, it is definitely easier to do our jobs.


IDS: Would you work with IDS again?

Dr. Chuck Hughes: I am thrilled with my current office and I wouldn’t hesitate to work with Dave and his team again! Not only would I work with them again but when other practitioners ask me, ‘who did those great animals on your roof’ I say, IDS, and you’re going to love them… here’s their number.

Check out Dr. Hughes’ office photos here.


Interview with Scott Savel – How Theming Brings Success

September 15th, 2018

Scott Savel owns several successful dental offices. IDS has themed three of those locations – you can see his first and second space themed offices on our website. On our most recent install, we sat down and chatted with Scott about what he thinks about theming. Watch the video to see a tour his two space offices and see some snippets of the full interview we have transcribed below.

IDS: This is your third IDS office now?

Scott Savel: This is my third IDS office.


IDS: Do you have more plans for expanding into new locations with more theming?

Scott Savel: Yeah, we found that theming has been instrumental in our success, we’re definitely planning on opening multiple offices and using theming for all of them.


IDS: Is the IDS theming helping you expand faster?

Scott Savel: Tremendous difference. We found that by making the investment, that it sets us apart and especially in pediatrics. We walk into an area, and we’re a “category-killer” in that area.


IDS: What’s your favorite part of your office? Favorite prop, room, etc.?

Scott Savel: You know it’s hard to say, all the stuff they do is so cool. I mean every time I do it, it’s amazing, but we tend to center and focus on the game room and the front desk, so I would have to say the game rooms are always the coolest.

IDS: Have your patients or their parents commented on your theming? What have they said?

Scott Savel: They can’t believe it. They’ve never seen a dental office like this before and they wish they had something like that for them. In fact, we’ve used the IDS concept in order to bring in adult patients. So, we market to the children but, we hopefully are able to book the parents when they come in as well.


IDS: How do you like working with IDS, what do you think of IDS?

Scott Savel: Hands down IDS is an incredible company. They’re reliable, they’re super, super organized, they’re incredibly creative, they can handle any need you could possibly want. I’ve always been amazed how they could be out of state or even out of the country in this case and be able to coordinate this job to such perfection. Hands down, they have it down completely, it’s always seamless.


IDS: What do you think are the benefits of office theming?

Scott Savel: Office theming as I said previously, sets you apart. It gives you something. If you look at dentistry as a whole, most dentistry offices are always the same, but the theming sets you apart, it definitely jumpstarts the business.


IDS: Would you recommend IDS and theming to your friends?

Scott Savel: Well no one that’s local, I don’t want any competition! But if you’re gonna open up out of state, I would definitely recommend IDS.


IDS: Do your employees get into the theme, and have they enjoyed their work in that environment?

Scott Savel: Every time I open a new office, every one of my employees wants to work in the new office. They’re always so cool and so different and every time we do it, it just gets better and better. We work off of our original idea, and we go from there.

IDS: How do you feel about the quality of the product IDS provides you?

Scott Savel: It’s hands down incredible. The way they actually manufacture the products and if you really look at what they do a lot of it is just hand done. It’s almost like they’re artists. Of course, the installation teams that come in are incredible as well. Literally, no stone is left unturned and they work with you to make sure you’re completely satisfied until the job is done.


IDS: Have you ever received patient referrals from current patients due to the new IDS theming?

Scott Savel: Of course. People see it all the time. Not only that, but IDS helps us with our marketing. You know, a lot of people advertise in newspapers or look to radio, but we’re a real visual concept now. We’ve developed television commercials and certain kinds of billboard advertising that really shows the visual concept and how it sets us apart from everybody else.


IDS: Has your practice increased due to passersby, foot-traffic, vehicles seeing your theming and bringing new kids to you?

Scott Savel: It’s not even close, absolutely. Every time we open up an IDS themed office, we are jump-started from the get-go. Right away people see it, they walk in, they’ve never seen anything like it, they’re blown away, they can’t even believe it’s a dental office.


IDS: Did you get good value for your money?

Scott Savel: Absolutely. You know, it’s all relative, no one can build what IDS does, no one can do what they do. So, it’s definitely good value because even though the upfront costs are sometimes not small, depending on how deep you wanna go and there’s no end to what you can do with these guys, they can do anything. The point is that when you’re a dentist, you’ll be in business for 15, 20, 30 years, so if you amortize those costs over that time, it actually comes out very cheap compared to how fast you’re building your business.


IDS: If you could plan a whole new office, what theme would you go with?

Scott Savel: Well it’s interesting. I’ve been working with IDS for a while and I’ve done jungle themes and I’ve done space themes. But I gotta say, at the end of the day, our company is called Super Smiles and I like the space theme personally, because it transcends to adults and to children, everybody loves it.


IDS: Last question here, if you could get IDS to make anything: sky’s the limit, doesn’t matter cost, your imagination, what would you get them to make?

Scott Savel: They have some people outside the New York area, where obviously real estate is a lot cheaper, where they’re taking large buildings and warehouse space. I’m dying to do an office where I could do the outside of it, because I just believe that is the coolest thing ever that they do. I haven’t done that yet, it’s all been interior work, but if I could own a building and do a complete outside job, which brings people in, inside and out, that would be something I would love to coordinate with them.


Interview with Dr. Leslie Jacobs – Bringing Her Storybook to Life

July 15th, 2018

Dr. Leslie Jacobs is a successful pediatric dentist in Lafayette, Louisiana. Dr. Jacobs was kind enough to take some time to tell us about her experience with IDS and how it has impacted her practice. Take a look at her installed office.


IDS: Dr. Jacobs, how were you introduced to Imagination Dental Solutions?

Dr. Jacobs: I attended a pediatric dental meeting several years ago where I passed by the IDS booth and picked up a brochure. Once I saw the fun and creative work they were doing, I knew I wanted my office to be built by them.

IDS: Your office is very unique, where did the theme come from?

Dr. Jacobs: When I was in college, I wrote a children’s book called The Adventure of the Tall Giraffe and the Short Duck. It’s a wonderful story about how we are all unique in our own ways, which makes each and every one of us special. After talking with Dave (IDS’s President) we decided the best theme for the office would be telling the story from my children’s book. IDS built an amazing office based on the characters in my book and really brought everything to life! The transformation of my practice has been wonderful, absolutely wonderful!

IDS: Are you pleased with the results?

Dr. Jacobs: I couldn’t be happier! Dave and the IDS team were so great to work with. They took the time to create all of the characters in my book so accurately while bringing their own ideas to life as well. The end result is just so amazing. The kids love it, my staff loves it, and I absolutely love it!

IDS: Were there any surprises for you once the office was complete?

Dr. Jacobs: I know a lot of dentists contact IDS because they want to use their products as a marketing tool. That was less important for me as I had an established practice already and I really just wanted a special place for my patients to enjoy. The surprise for me was how well my themed office was received in the community. Everyone just loves the work that IDS created and it really has helped my practice grow even larger. It really is the best way to market yourself as a dentist.

IDS: Would you consider building another office with IDS?

Dr. Jacobs: Are you kidding? I wouldn’t build another office without them! They are so easy and fun to work with and the quality of their work is outstanding. I cannot imagine having an office that isn’t themed by IDS.

IDS: Do you have any advice to other dentists that are considering using IDS to theme their office?

Dr. Jacobs: Firstly, do it! Secondly, don’t limit yourself to what you have seen on their website or in their brochures. These guys do incredible work but really try to make your office unique. I am so glad I had my book brought to life by IDS. It makes my office that much more special for me. It was a big financial investment, but it was worth every penny. IDS is a really creative company that understands the dental industry, and they use their skills to make the best office possible.


Dr. Leslie Jacobs is a pediatric dentist in Lafayette, Louisiana, but she is so much more than a dentist. She served in the US Army Reserve for 8 years and served in Desert Storm to put herself through dental college. Currently, Dr. Jacobs serves on the board of Healing House for Grieving Children. She is the mother of two daughters, Callie and Chloe.
Proceeds from Dr. Leslie Jacobs’ children’s book The Adventure of the Tall Giraffe and the Short Duck are donated to Healing House for Grieving Children.


Interview with Dr. Jed Snatic – Creating a 1920s Train Theme for a Chestermere Station Dental Office

June 15th, 2018

After creating this amazing 1920s style train themed office we returned to have a chat with the owner, Dr. Jed Snatic, to see how he and his patients feel about their new IDS office decor.

You can see clips of the interview in the video or read the full transcript below.

IDS: What have your patients and their parents said about the decor?

Dr. Snatic: Well when we were working with IDS to design this, we struggled with whether to go for a younger age or an older age, and as it progressed we decided to go for a more authentic train station, 1920s-era, and when we did that we found that everybody liked it, from grandpa right down to the one-year-old. They all love it!

IDS: And what do you personally think about the theme of the office?

Dr. Snatic: My partners and I couldn’t be prouder of the way it has come out. It’s so unique and it’s such a blast from the past, it’s almost like a tribute to the railroad days in early Alberta. Our shopping mall here is a train-themed (area), and it’s called Chestermere Station, so we couldn’t be happier with our investment.

IDS: What’s your favorite part of your new themed office?

Dr. Snatic: The train! I would say when we originally designing the office, ‘There’s no way you can make a train station without a train’ so really the engineering marvel was to put it up against the windows to allow room for it to fit into the space without it eating up all of our waiting room. As you may know, real estate is expensive here in Chestermere so I think the train is the bomb.

IDS: You recently moved into this space. Can you talk about expanding into this new location and how this encouraged you to theme your new office?

Dr. Snatic: Yes, well it was probably 2-2.5 years ago when it started to come to critical mass at our former office and we knew that would be running out of space. So we went looking and found this larger location. We wanted to attract a lot of specialists to work out of here, so spending extra on the waiting room, for the ‘pop’ to get the kids and the moms in and to enjoy the place, seemed like a worthwhile investment. In one year we’ve gone from, you know, a startup, to full-on busy and I’m sure we’ll have that same issue [with too many patients] within 2 to 3 years.

IDS: How do you think that the theming has helped your office?

Dr. Snatic: Oh, I’m sure everybody here thinks it’s been a huge success for the town of Chestermere and the area. The staff like it, the parents like it, and the kids love it the most.

IDS: Any final thoughts?

Dr. Snatic: Yup, I’d just like to thank the team at IDS for delivering just such a beautiful, beautiful place and something so unique and fun to work at that you actually enjoy driving to work every day.

That’s a huge feather in our caps and we couldn’t be happier with our investment, and so are our patients.


Dr. Snatic is a father, lifelong learner, entrepreneur, and passionate professional. He prides himself on being able to treat most dental issues under one roof at his clinic.
This interview has been edited for clarity.


White Paper: Alleviating Patient Anxiety Through Office Theming

January 31st, 2018



  1. Blondin, B.Des.
    June 16th, 2016



Focuses on techniques for alleviating dental anxiety, fear, and phobias through positive interior support design and environmental distractions.

Reports of dental anxiety in up to 74% of children and adolescents imply that anxiety is a major concern in dental offices. Pediatric dental theming vastly improved patient experience by relieving anxiety, fear, and phobias from a young age. It is also possible to have a significant positive impact on the duration of a patient’s life, as well as future generations by halting the cycle of dental avoidance through office theming.

Highlights several support design techniques and delves into the reasons why theming in medical environments is so crucial to patient wellbeing.




Anxiety, by definition, is a “state of apprehension resulting from the anticipation of a threatening event or situation” (American Heritage Science Dictionary). Anxiety is differentiated from fear, as fear occurs in the presence of an observed threat, while anxiety requires no tangible manifestation. Anxiety may develop into a phobia; which is defined as a “persistent, abnormal, and irrational fear of a specific thing or situation that compels one to avoid it, despite the awareness and reassurance that it is not dangerous” (American Heritage Science Dictionary). Dental fear, anxiety, and phobias negatively affect patient care and can develop from an early age.


A cross-sectional study of 100 patients from the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic of the Federal University of Parana found that 74% of children and adolescents between experienced some form of dental anxiety based on the responses that were measured with the Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Trait Anxiety Scale (TAS). This can be seen in Figure 1 on page 11 (Assunção et al., 31:175). Comparison studies such as the one carried out by Bedi, Sutcliffe, and Donnan; showed that the prevalence of severe dental anxiety in 6-7 year old children is higher than any other age group (Bedi, 2:17-24).


Dental anxiety, fear, and phobias have been shown to persist into adulthood that can potentially lead to dental avoidance in patients. A study at Jimma University Specialized Hospital showed that children with dental anxiety were found to have avoidance of dental treatment (Bezabih et al., 115-21). Avoidance is not strictly a childhood affliction. One study suggests that, in the US, more than 80% of the population fear dental treatment, and 20% avoid the dentist due to severe dental fear (Milgrom et al., 116: 641-7). When narrowed down specifically to adult patients, a study on the prevalence of dental fear and avoidance found that approximately 10% to 20% of the adult population in the western industrialized world report high dental anxiety; most also report this reaction as having developed in childhood (Gatchel, 118: 591-3).


It is exceptionally important to treat anxiety in the childhood stages of development not only for the sake of the child’s health but for the benefit of office revenue as well. Parents who experience anxiety are likely to pass on these traits to their children, regardless of if they intend to or not. A cross sectional study of patients at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic of the Federal University of Panama found that dental anxiety scores were correlated among the adults and children, and associations were found between children’s trait anxiety and the dental and trait anxiety of their parents (Losso et al., 175).


There is a harmful cycle in which a child develops dental anxiety, fear, or a phobia and the anxiety persists into adulthood. Dental anxiety that the adult faces is then passed onto future children, who in turn develops their own dental related anxiety and begins the cycle anew. A model of the dental fear cycle can be found on page 11 (Figure 2, Armfield). A study on maternal dental anxiety found that children whose mothers exhibited a moderate or high level of dental anxiety had an increased likelihood of exhibiting cavities and tooth decay when compared to children whose mothers reported low dental anxiety (Goettems et al., 46:3-8). Consequently, dental avoidance influences the bottom line of a dental office and negatively impacts revenue due to missed appointments, cancellations, and difficulties with patient recall (Koohoot).


It is also important to note that aside from monetary loss there is often a cost in time and resources in dealing with a child who experiences dental anxiety, fear, or phobia. Anxious patients tend to overestimate pain and discomfort caused by dental treatment and may also postpone or miss appointments with negative consequences for their oral health and often having to incur more complex interventions, thereby entering a vicious cycle that tends to intensify anxiety with regard to treatment (Armfield et al.). As a result, the frequency of dental diseases and unpleasant dental experiences is greater among children with more anxious and uncooperative behavior in comparison to non-anxious children (Themessl-Huber et al., 20:83-101).


In terms of anxiety treatment there are countless medical and behavioral techniques that can be used on a patient-by-patent basis. However, in order to counteract anxiety on a broad scale, changes to the dental office environment can play a crucial part. There have been several investigations into the effects that the built environment has on patient health outcomes. This can be shown in long-term effects of healing, the mental health of the individual during the treatment, and even the mindset of the patient before arriving at the healthcare environment. There is suggestive evidence that aspects of the designed environment exert significant effects on clinical outcomes for patients (Rubin et al.).


Georgia Houston, a graduate of industrial design at the University of Calgary’s Faculty of Environmental Design, completed a master’s degree that focused on the significance of using design alternatives to promote a positive dental experience, as well as improve long-term dental health. “Design won’t eliminate procedures that are uncomfortable, but it can shape young patients’ perception of an experience which is paramount,” says Houston. “Through design we can help reduce anxiety before, during and after the dental office visit, while increasing the child’s sense of choice and control over the experience” (Obad).


The focus of many of these investigations and studies is what is known as ‘supportive design’. The term supportive refers to “environmental characteristics that support or facilitate coping and restoration with respect to the stress that accompanies illness and hospitalization” (Ulrich). Supportive design can come in many forms. From the color of paint on the walls to the texture of the flooring, every small aspect of a design plays a role in impacting the psychological state of the patient. Supportive design has become a key feature in dental construction and renovation.


An example of supportive design is found in dental theming. Theming refers specifically to “the use of an overarching theme in order to create a holistic and integrated spatial organization of a consumer venue” (Lukas). A prime example of dental theming by Imagination Dental Solutions is an office that is designed to look like a playful jungle or a calming underwater scene. A full supportive design environment often includes illustrated wall murals, fully three-dimensional sculpted characters, and interactive elements that match the overarching concept. There is an increasing demand for creative solutions to positively impact the mental and physical well being of patients and staff in medical environments.


The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) released a reference manual for dentists in 1990 that has since been updated periodically to include new guidelines for managing patient behaviors in pediatric dental practices. Throughout the manual, they discuss the need for supportive design by way of a child-friendly reception area that can both provide a distraction and indicate that the staff has a genuine concern for young patients. They explain that these first impressions may influence future behaviors in patients (AAPD). In his journal on the Effects of Healthcare Environmental Design on Medical Outcomes, Roger Ulrich discusses the notion that humans react positively and pay attention to the following types of features or environmental-social content: comedy or laughter, caring or smiling human faces, music, companion animals, and nature such as trees, flowers, and water. Many themes that Imagination Dental Solutions creates include calming natural environments, waterfalls, and companion animals that give off a friendly and humorous vibe. An example of this would be a jungle-circus dental theme in which an illustrated wall mural is filled with friendly animals in humorous situations such as a snake being used as a tightrope, while the background highlights rounded plants and aquatic areas.


Dental theming is also a key component of positive distractions. Positive distractions refer a “subset of environmental-social conditions marked by a capacity to improve mood and effectively promote restoration from stress” (Ulrich). Traditionally, positive distraction has come in the form of asking a child to imagine a positive situation in their mind, count ceiling tiles, or even calculate arithmetic in their heads. Though all of these tactics help distract children to a degree, they only help if the child is able to concentrate, and they do not further supportive design or the environmental characteristics that make this form of design so successful.


Offering a tangible distraction can positively impact the medical experience, which is where dental theming plays a crucial role. Imagination Dental Solutions creates ‘I Spy Murals’ that encourage children to find characters and items throughout a large illustrated art piece. Giving a child a task such as searching through a wall mural to find hidden treasures can shift the focus away from the procedure at hand, while also supplying the aforementioned natural fauna and flora that human beings find comfort in. A large wall mural also provides positive distraction through bright colours that can improve mood through colour theory. A study on the positive influence of art in hospital environments found that the majority of patients reported positive emotional reactions to art depicting natural environments having scattered trees and/or non-turbulent water features (Carpman et al.). In his journal Stress Recovery during Exposure to Natural and Urban Environments, Ulrich notes that these particular nature scenes are quick to produce mood improvement and elicits beneficial physiological changes such as lower blood pressure and reduced heart rate (Ulrich, 201-230).


Recently, hospitals have begun testing on the use of positive distraction in pediatric environments, an action that can be mimicked in children’s dental clinics. The Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh pioneered what they coined as ‘distraction rooms’. They included wall murals and characters to distract children from the action of taking a CT scan in order to lower fear and anxiety that caused many children to require sedation during treatment. The results of the distraction rooms led to a 97% reduction in sedation rates. After such an overwhelmingly positive change in patient mindset, the hospital has since constructed 28 more distraction rooms (Hilton). Offices that have created supportive design themes through Imagination Dental Solutions have found similar results. Dr. Tonya Triplett began with a single themed pediatric dental office in 2004. Since then, she has created three fully themed dental offices and reports that the themed environments have been responsible for bringing in thousands of new patients. Dr. Djuana Cartillar, who wished to bring the feel of Disney Land to her patients, reported that they expanded their practice after seeing the joy that supportive design brought to young patients (Mitchell, 43-44).


Dr. Barbara Sheller, DDR, MDS, the Chief of Pediatric Dentistry at Seattle Children’s Hospital explains that it is critical for a pediatric environment to provide warm, welcoming signals to reinforce patients and parents that they have come to the right place. The most important signals to soothe and satisfy social-emotional connections that influence childhood anxiety include: bright, upbeat colors, kid-targeted activities in the waiting room, and a sincerity of staff at the practice (Sheller).


In conclusion, dental anxiety, fear, and phobia have longstanding effects on children, however these negative experiences can be altered through support design, conscious choices in office décor, and positive distractions. These design considerations counteract anxiety on a broad scale to provide a positive experience through dental theming.


FIGURE 1 – Trait and dental anxiety frequency distribution among children, adolescents and their parents

FIGURE 2 – Dental Fear Cycle

Works Cited

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on Behavior Guidance for the Pediatric Dental Patient. Chicago: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 2005. Print.
The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Print.
Armfield, Jason M., Judy F. Stewart, and John A. Spencer. “The Vicious Cycle of Dental Fear: Exploring the Interplay between Oral Health, Service Utilization and Dental Fear.” BMC Oral Health 7.1 (2007): 2. Print.
Assunção, Cristianemeira, Estelamaris Losso, Roberto Andreatini, and José Vitornogara Borges De Menezes. “The Relationship between Dental Anxiety in Children, Adolescents and Their Parents at Dental Environment.” J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry 31.3 (2013): 175. Web.
Bedi, R., P. Sutcliffe, P. T. Donnan, and J. Mcconnachie. “The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety in a Group of 13- and 14-year-old Scottish Children.” International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2.1 (2009): 17-24. Web.
Bezabih, S., W. Fantaye, and M. Tesfaye. “Dental Anxiety: Prevalence and Associated Factors, among Children Who Visited Jimma University Specialized Hospital Dental Clinic.” Ethiop Med J Apr.51(2) (2013): 115-21. Print.
Carpman, Janet Reizenstein, Myron A. Grant, and Deborah A. Simmons. Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Hospital, 1993. Print.
Gatchel, R.j. “The Prevalence of Dental Fear and Avoidance: Expanded Adult and Recent Adolescent Surveys.” The Journal of the American Dental Association 118.5 (1989): 591-93. Web.
Goettems, M.l., T.m. Ardenghi, A.r. Romano, F.f. Demarco, and D.d. Torriani. “Influence of Maternal Dental Anxiety on the Child’s Dental Caries Experience.” Caries Res Caries Research 46.1 (2012): 3-8. Web.
Hilton, Lesette. “Calming Kids’ Hospital Anxieties.” Contemporary Pediatrics. Modern Medicine Network, 1 June 2014. Web. 16 June 2016.
Kohoot, M. “Latest Innovation in Patient Dental Anxiety Reduction Now Available Fr.” PRWeb. N.p., 20 Mar. 2014. Web. 13 June 2016.
Lukas, Scott A. The Themed Space: Locating Culture, Nation, and Self. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2007. Print.
Milgrom, Peter, Louis Fiset, Sandra Melnick, and Philip Weinstein. “The Prevalence and Practice Management Consequences of Dental Fear in a Major US City.” The Journal of the American Dental Association 116.6 (1988): 641-47. Web.
Mitchell, Victoria, and Micaela Blondin. From Imagination to Creation. Vol. 4. Calgary: Imagination Dental Solutions, 2016. Unpublished Print.
Obad, J. “EVDS Student Offers Emotion-based Design to Improve Children’s Experience at the Dental Office.” UCalgary. University of Calgary, 19 Dec. 2007. Web. 15 June 2016.
Rubin, Haya R., Amanda J. Owens, and Greta Golden. Status Report: An Investigation to Determine Whether the Built Environment Affects Patients’ Medical Outcomes. Martinez, CA: Center for Health Design, 1997. Print.
Sheller, Barbara. “The Power of Positivity in Managing Pediatric Patient and Parent Behavior.” Dental Economics. N.p., 22 Mar. 2016. Web. 16 June 2016.
Themessl-Huber, M., R. Freeman, G. Humphris, S. MacGillivray, and N. Terzi. “Empirical Evidence of the Relationship between Parental and Child Dental Fear: A Structured Review and Meta-analysis.” BDJ Br Dent J 208.8 (2010): 83-101. Print.
Ulrich, Roger S., Ph.D. “Evidence Based Environmental Design for Improving Medical Outcomes.” Building Research Information Knowledgebase. Texas A&M University, n.d. Web. 16 June 2016.
Ulrich, Roger S., Robert F. Simons, Barbara D. Losito, Evelyn Fiorito, Mark A. Miles, and Michael Zelson. “Stress Recovery during Exposure to Natural and Urban Environments.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 11.3 (1991): 201-30. Print. 


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